Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve practical or aesthetic effect. Lighting include  use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight. Proper lighting can enhance task performance, improve the appearance of an area, or have  psychological effects on occupants.


The “brightness” of light can mean different thing for example, the amount of light coming from a light source is luminous flux (lumens), the amount of light falling on a surface is illuminance (lux), and the amount light reflected off a surface is luminance (cd/m2).


Campfire was the earliest form of artificial lighting used to illuminate an area after the discovery of fire. Then, prehistoric people used oil lamps to illuminate surroundings. These lamps were made from natural material such as shells or stones and fill these materials with animal oil and  a fiber wick. Then, candles and pottery lamps were also invented. Gas lighting method was then being invented in the early 1800s, and was also used in some commercial buildings and in the homes of wealthy people. The gas mantle boosted the luminosity of utility lighting and kerosene lanterns. In the 1880s, electric lighting became ubiquitous in developed countries which can, improved nighttime lighting made more activities possible at night, and more street lights reduced urban crime.

Indoor or interior lighting

Indoor lighting for a building is the light source that is being integrated into the inner of the building for some general purpose such as brighten the room and give some special or desired effect to the room.

Outdoor or exterior lighting

Outdoor lighting for a building is the light source that is being integrated to building’s outside for some general purpose such as to decorate the building at night and give improve the safety feature of the building to prevent some accident to occur when somebody walk or drive near to the building.